Luckily for humankind, there have been substantial advancements in both medicine and technology over the past decade. These particular breakthroughs have enhanced CPR techniques to improve the chances of survival for those in critical health conditions.
The process of merging medicine and innovative approaches has increased the likelihood of survival rates after suffering an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. In addition, the merger further refined CPR, ensuring that the technique is performed correctly and effectively. This particular combination paved the way for the development of evidence-based guidelines, as well as the introduction of new medical devices and equipment.
Additionally, the implementation of comprehensive training programs has also contributed to the delivery of high-quality CPR. Thanks to these practices and novelties, both healthcare professionals and bystanders can perform CPR and increase the survival odds of sudden cardiac arrest victims.
Evidence-Based Medical Guidelines Developed for CPR
Nowadays, there are quite a few evidence-based guidelines specifically developed to boost the quality (and effectiveness) of cardiopulmonary resuscitation.
Comprehensive training programs have ensured that healthcare professionals and bystanders are equipped with the knowledge and skills necessary to perform CPR effectively. As a result, the merging of medicine and innovative techniques continues to save lives by increasing the likelihood of successful resuscitation and improving the overall survival rates of individuals experiencing cardiac arrest or respiratory failure.
We explain some of the most notable examples below.
American Heart Association (AHA) Guidelines
The AHA regularly updates its CPR and emergency cardiovascular care guidelines based on the latest scientific research. These guidelines delve into different aspects of CPR, including rescue breaths, chest compressions, use of medication, and defibrillation. The AHA CPR guidelines offer recommendations for both healthcare professionals and laypeople. In addition, emphasis is placed on the importance of early recognition of signs of cardiac arrest, fast CPR initiation, as well as high-quality chest compressions.
Basic Life Support (BLS) Guidelines
BLS guidelines concentrate on providing CPR to individuals who are unresponsive, not breathing, or experiencing cardiac arrest. These guidelines identify the steps for:
- canning the surrounding area
- checking responsiveness
- employing emergency medical services
- delivering chest compressions
- delivering rescue breaths
In general, BLS guidelines are specifically developed to cater to the needs of first responders, healthcare professionals, and people with fundamental CPR training.
European Resuscitation Council (ERC) Guidelines
The ERC develops evidence-based guidelines for resuscitation in Europe. These guidelines align with international best practices and emphasize early recognition of cardiac arrest, early initiation of CPR, and the importance of rapid defibrillation. They also provide recommendations for:
- optimizing the quality of chest compressions
- managing airway and breathing
- using automated external defibrillators (AEDs)
Pediatric Advanced Life Support (PALS) Guidelines
PALS guidelines focus on resuscitation techniques specifically for infants and children. They cover topics such as:
- recognizing respiratory distress and cardiac arrest in pediatric patients
- administering age-appropriate CPR
- managing airway and breathing
- using pediatric-specific equipment and medications
These guidelines are continuously updated based on new research and advancements in resuscitation science to improve outcomes for individuals in need of CPR. It’s important for healthcare professionals and individuals trained in CPR to stay updated with these guidelines to ensure the delivery of high-quality and evidence-based care.
The Basic CPR Techniques
CPR techniques fall into three main categories: adult CPR, infant CPR, and child CPR. Every CPR technique is specifically developed to align with the distinct anatomy of the targeted age group. In addition, every one of the CPR techniques considers other factors that contribute to its success.
The medical aspect of adult CPR differs from other age-based CPR techniques regarding the depth of the chest compressions, among other specifics. Should you ever find yourself in a situation where you need to perform CPR on an adult, before anything else, remember to call 911 first. After you’ve done so, these are the steps to take:
- Check for a pulse; if there is none, initiate chest compressions.
- Follow a steady chest compression rhythm (ideally, keep the compressions between 100-120 a minute)
- If available, use an automated external defibrillator (AED).
The medical technique for dealing with infant victims of SCA is very different from standard CPR techniques. Since infants are very delicate, rescuers need to be extra careful when performing CPR.
The CPR technique for infants is as follows:
- Ensure consciousness and call 911.
- Don’t shake the baby, but rather tap the soles on their feet and shout at them.
- Check for a pulse (on the inside of the arm); if there is none, start chest compressions.
- Place two fingers on the center of the infant’s chest and apply pressure about 1-and-a-half inch deep.
- Do 30 compressions and 2 rescue breaths after each set.
- To deliver rescue breaths, lean the infant’s head backward, but do it gently.
- Blow air into the infant’s mouth and nose.
- If there is an AED available, use the pediatric pads.
When it comes to child CPR, the technique is developed to be used on pubescent children or those weighing less than 121 pounds. Before you deliver CPR to a child, make sure you call 911 first. A child’s survival odds are higher when CPR is performed momentarily.
If there is no one around you, and you need to choose whether to call 911 or start chest compressions, choose to do CPR.
- Depending on the physique of the child, use one or two hands to do chest compressions.
- Keep the pressure at 1-and-a-half inch deep.
- When delivering rescue breaths, take extra caution – their airways are fragile.
- Do not tilt the child’s head back too much.
- As in adults, follow the same 30:2 ratio of chest compressions and rescue breaths.
- Use an AED if available.
CPR Survival Rates
The fact that sudden cardiac arrest claims the lives of almost half a million Americans each year makes the need for spreading CPR awareness much more important. According to an extensive study, the incidence of cardiac arrest in Los Angeles was 45 per 100,000 persons.
In the context of out-of-hospital survival rates after CPR, the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) reports relatively low results (nearly 10%).
Nevertheless, bystander CPR can significantly improve the out-of-hospital survival rates. Laypeople who know how to deliver CPR and respond immediately can double or triple the survival rates of SCA victims.
How Does the Public in Los Angeles Respond to Cardiac Emergencies
In recent news, a Los Angeles county launched a campaign to train 500,000 LA residents in CPR. The campaign introduced the CPR-training program, called Heart Heros, and promised to train half a million LA residents in hands-only CPR by the end of 2023.
According to campaign spokespeople, LA residents responded massively to the call to action. For example, 18 organizations have partnered up for the campaign, including the LA Lakers, the Los Angeles Fire Department, and the American Red Cross.
Campaigns like this one are particularly important in raising awareness about the effectiveness of CPR in early cardiac death prevention. CPR techniques are a key element in the chain of response.
In July 2023, LeBron James’ son, Bronny James, collapsed during training. The basketball A-lister’s son lost consciousness during a workout at the University of Southern California in Los Angeles. Bronny James was rushed to the hospital and made a full recovery.
Key Takeaway: Merging Medicine and CPR Techniques in Los Angeles
Anyone who is willing to learn CPR can easily acquire the skill. In Los Angeles, there are reliable and affordable online CPR classes that will fit the busy schedules of LA residents. Whether you’re looking to learn CPR for your own sake or want to brush up on your CPR skills to stay up to date with the latest guidelines, online CPR courses are a great choice.
The merging of medicine and innovative techniques has revolutionized the field of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). It has enhanced the potential for saving lives. Evidence-based guidelines, such as those provided by organizations like the American Heart Association (AHA) and the European Resuscitation Council (ERC), have played a vital role in shaping the delivery of high-quality CPR.
These guidelines emphasize early recognition, prompt initiation of CPR, and the optimization of chest compressions and rescue breaths. The integration of advanced technologies, such as automated external defibrillators (AEDs) and specialized devices, has further improved the outcomes of CPR by enabling rapid defibrillation and enhancing the effectiveness of chest compressions.